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Gears of War ist ein Videospiel-Franchise, das von Epic Games entwickelt, von The Coalition entwickelt und verwaltet wird und im Besitz von Xbox Game Studios ist und von diesen veröffentlicht wird. Gears of War (kurz: GoW, nicht zu verwechseln mit God of War) ist ein Franchise, das auf einem durch Epic Games produzierten und im November durch. Buy Xbox - Controller Wireless "Gears of War 3" Limited Edition from henkenzwaanstaal.nl Everyday low prices on a huge range of video game accessories. Are you a Gears of War 4 fan? Then this exclusive merchandise pack is for you! This GoW stuffed box comes with lap top stickers, a Phoenix Omen pin badge. Hol dir Gears of War 4 für Xbox One und Windows Leg mit explosiver Versus-Multiplayer, neuen Gegnern und Verbündeten sowie brutalen.
Erleben Sie eine spannende Co-op-Kampagne für zwei Spieler zusammen mit Ihren Freunden, via Splitscreen oder Xbox Live. Die Horde kehrt zurück. In Gears. Gears of War ist ein Videospiel-Franchise, das von Epic Games entwickelt, von The Coalition entwickelt und verwaltet wird und im Besitz von Xbox Game Studios ist und von diesen veröffentlicht wird. henkenzwaanstaal.nl ist die weltweit erste und damit älteste News-Community rund um Gears of War. Hier findest du als Fan alles, was dein Herz.
These abominations have been forcing the Locust to abandon their underground civilization to try to claim the surface world as their new home.
Marcus devises a plan to intentionally sink Jacinto and using the surrounding sea water to flood the Locust and Lambent tunnel network. The remaining population of the COG rediscover an island base not attacked by the Locust Horde called Vectes, with a town known as Pelruan.
The Stranded gangs on the island threaten the safety of the town, but the COG and Stranded cease when the Lambent begin to overrun the island and surrounding ocean.
Due to the underground being flooded, the Imulsion from the Hollow was raised into the surface of Sera, causing a pandemic and turning all life into Lambent organisms.
Prescott abandons the COG, forcing them to disband and live as nomads, surviving against the Lambent and Locust stragglers. Gears of War 3 is set two years after the COG disbanded.
Prescott returns to reveal that he kidnapped Marcus Fenix's father during the fall of Ephyra and transported him to a secret island facility known as Azura, and that Adam has created a device known as the Imulsion countermeasure that could neutralize both the Lambent and Locust.
However, the island was attacked and is occupied by Queen Myrrah and the remaining Locust forces. Marcus and his allies reach Azura after Dominic sacrifices himself to rescue his friends from imminent demise.
Adam is rescued and releases his anti-Imulsion weapon but reveals he infected himself with the Lambent contagion to develop the weapon.
The Imulsion countermeasure vaporizes all Lambent, including Adam, and the crystallizes the Locust. Marcus kills Myrrah and dedicates her demise to his fallen friends, family, and comrades.
Baird disobeys orders to use a Lightmass Missile to destroy Locust forces and save survivors at Halvo Bay. Despite also killing the powerful Locust leader Karn, the squad is court-martialed because they disobeyed orders.
But because they saved Col. Ezra Loomis and killed Karn, they avoid execution or imprisonment, with Baird demoted from lieutenant to private. A separate campaign, "Aftermath", portrays Baird, Cole, and Paduk in the hours before the activation of the anti-Imulsion energy wave.
Following the end of the Locust War and Lambent Pandemic, the humans of Sera began to rebuild and started with reorganizing the Coalition of Ordered Governments.
Led by First Minister Anya Stroud, wife of Marcus Fenix, the humans begin to rebuild civilization with the assistance of robotic engineers created by Damon Baird.
Anya died from birthing complications and the COG began a more authoritarian rule - prompting many civilians to abandon the COG and live off the land, known as Outsiders.
JD was sent to boarding school and met his friend Delmont "Del" Walker. After joining the military, both JD and Del were forced to execute civilians during a protest in Settlement 2, prompting them to leave the COG and becoming Outsiders.
They joined a village led by Reyna Diaz and her brother-in-law, Oscar. Reyna's daughter, Kait, became close with JD and Del.
Gears of War 4 takes place 25 years after the original Gears of War trilogy. The three successfully fend off a COG counterattack only to have their encampment devastated by a new foe, called the Swarm.
Kait's mother, Reyna, is captured during the chaos. The four reach a Locust burial site, where they uncover evidence suggesting that Adam Fenix's countermeasure caused the Locust Horde to enter a cocooned metamorphosis state.
Their fears are confirmed when various Locust Horde soldiers attack them in conjunction with the Swarm.
They battle their way to the Swarm's hive and defeat multiple Swarm and Locust monstrosities. However, they reach the hive to learn that Swarm's hive-mind has forcefully integrated with Reyna.
Kait frees her mother, knowing she will die but will no longer suffer. Reyna gives Kait a parting gift that belonged to her mother — a necklace bearing the insignia of the Locust Queen, Myrrah.
Kait begins to have nightmares and visions related to her mother, the Swarm, and the Locust - but refuses to tell the others about it. Marcus and Baird believe they will need the Hammer of Dawn back online to help defend against the upcoming war with the Swarm.
Baird then uncovers additional Hammer of Dawn satellites at Azura. Four months later, Kait is captured by the Swarm and connects her to the Swarm hivemind, allowing her to control the Swarm to kill the humans, including her uncle.
She is freed by Marcus and JD, but in her grief reveals that she has been having visions and nightmares and believes them to be messages by the Swarm, as evidenced by her amulet which bears the Locust symbol.
Marcus has Kait and Del find answers at the New Hope facility. After discovering New Hope and an additional lab in Mount Kadar, Kait and Del learn that the Locust were the result of genetic experiments done to human children sick with Rustlung and splicing them with the DNA of creatures in the Hollow.
The mutant children, known as Sires, were used to fertilize the stem cells of Myrrah, who was born with a genetic immunity to Imulsion.
She manages to disconnect herself from the Swarm hivemind, but in doing so allowed Reyna to be awoken and become queen of the Swarm.
The Swarm becomes stronger and more intelligent now that they have a queen and launch an attack against New Ephyra. Gears of War is a third-person shooter game, with its core concepts being derived from Resident Evil 4 ' s "over the shoulder" perspective, Kill Switch ' s cover system , and Bionic Commando ' s swinging action akin to moving between points of cover.
While behind cover, the player can fire blindly and inaccurately at their opponent, or can look around the cover and aim carefully, though exposing to enemy fire; the player can slide along cover, move between nearby cover, or vault over cover to race to a new point of cover.
As the player takes damage, the "Crimson Omen" appears on the HUD , becoming more defined as the player nears low health levels. The player can regenerate their health by staying out of harm's way for a short while.
Should the player take too much damage, they will become incapacitated unless revived by a teammate; depending on game mode, the player may be able to recover from this state on their own, or may die after a short amount of time if not revived.
When a combatant is down, a member of the other side may attempt to execute the downed player via a "curb stomp" or other brutal methods. Some types of damage will immediately kill the player with no chance of revival, such as explosive damage.
There are five levels on the first two games; they are referred to as "acts" and each act is formed into a certain amount of chapters.
Players in Gears of War can carry four different weapons, with the exception of the fourth game, allowing two primary weapon slots that can carry weapons which include, but are not limited to: assault rifles, shotguns, a sniper rifle , grenade launchers and an explosive bow ; one grenade slot, which may be filled with up to four grenades of a specific type Fragmentation, Smoke, Ink and Incendiary , and one pistol-type weapon.
Players can either obtain ammo or swap out their current weapons with any weapon dropped by a downed foe or from those scattered around the various maps.
Most weapons feature the "Active Reload" ability: either after a weapon has depleted an ammo magazine or when the player starts a manual reload, a meter is shown on screen, and the player can attempt to stop the meter in a certain marked area.
If the player stops the meter in the marked area, their reload will be completed faster than if they did not attempt an Active Reload, and if the player can stop the meter at a specific section of the marked area, they will gain a temporary slight damage boost with each reloaded shot and a faster reload.
If the player stops the meter outside this area, their gun will become temporarily jammed and slow down the reload time.
While most of the weapons are based on standard shooter archetypes, Gears of War ' s signature weapon is the Lancer, an assault rifle that has a mounted chainsaw bayonet which can be used in close quarter combat to instantly kill a standard foe.
In Gears of War 2 and Gears of War 3 , all four types of grenades can be planted on any reachable surface, detonating when an opponent comes close to it.
If the opponent spots the grenade, they can detonate it from a safe distance by shooting it. All Gears of War games feature a campaign mode that can be played cooperatively with one other player.
In the third game the campaign allows for up to four players to play together at the same time. The campaign mode features several levels of difficulty.
At various times, the campaign will offer a choice of paths the first player can select; if the second player is present, they will be forced to take the other path.
The third and fourth players in Gears of War 3 will be separated between the paths of the first and second players.
In these areas, all players generally have to work together to get them through the section, such as by one player providing covering fire while the second player opens a switch that allows the first player to proceed.
The competitive multiplayer mode in Gears of War features 8 players while in Gears of War 2 features up to ten players split between COG and Locust forces in a number of gameplay types.
Modes include "Warzone" and "Execution", both similar to a typical deathmatch , and "Annex" and "King of the Hill" where teams have to control a marked zone on the map.
In the mode "Guardian" only in Gears of War 2 one member of each team is designated as the leader. As long as the leader is still alive, their teammates can respawn indefinitely.
As soon as the leader is executed, their teammates can no longer respawn. Gears of War 3 features better AI, as in past games the AI went around the obstacle even if it had been destroyed.
However, in Gears of War 3 the AI will recognize that the obstacle has been destroyed and are free to walk over it. Gears of War is a third-person shooter video game developed by Epic Games and published by Microsoft Studios.
Gears of War follows Delta Squad's efforts to help deploy a Lightmass bomb deep in the Locust tunnels to wipe out the Locust threat. In April , it was confirmed that a remastering of the game was being developed for the Xbox One , with The Coalition working on the project, after Microsoft acquired the rights to the Gears of War franchise from Epic Games in Gears of War 2 is a third-person shooter video game published by Microsoft Studios.
It was released worldwide November 7, The game uses a heavily upgraded version of the Unreal Engine 3. A PC version of the game was cancelled by the developers, citing poor sales of the original PC version of Gears of War as well as concerns over piracy.
Gears of War 3 is the concluding part to the trilogy. Originally with an April 6, release date, it was moved to September 20, to anchor Microsoft Studios' holiday portfolio for the Xbox Gears of War 3 takes place 18 months after the end of Gears of War 2.
Marcus, Dom, and the last remnants of humanity must band together to survive against the Locust and Lambent, while trying to find Marcus's father and end the war.
The game's plot is set 25 years after Gears of War 3 and focuses on JD Fenix, the son of Marcus Fenix , who joins his father and two new characters: Delmont "Del" Walker and Kait Diaz against the "Swarm", a new threat risen from the remnants of the Locust.
Gears 5 is a sequel to Gears of War 4. It was released for Windows and Xbox One on September 10, Gears of War: Judgment is a spin-off, released on March 19, At the conference they showed off the first trailer, mainly focused on Baird.
Kilo Squad is put on trial by another new character, Ezra Loomis. Gears Pop! Gears Tactics is a turn-based strategy spin-off for Xbox One and Windows, developed by Splash Damage  and released on April 28, Gabriel Diaz, who would later become Kait's father.
Characters from the Gears of War series have made guest appearances in games outside of the Gears of War franchise. Designed by Corey Konieczka, it is a cooperative game for up to four players, including the option for solo play.
Each player takes control of a COG represented by a miniature figure pre-painted in red , fighting their way through randomly generated maps filled with Locust soldiers represented by a miniature figure pre-painted in light gray.
These are controlled by an AI deck of cards: after each player finishes their turn, they draw a card from the AI deck and takes actions for each Locust creature.
Players play cards and roll dice to take actions as well as to resolve shooting and defense. The game proceeds until the player team successfully completes the mission.
There are seven different missions, each featuring different objectives and enemies in randomly generated map layouts.
Since its launch, the game has received one expansion, Mission Pack 1 , which brought more weapons, two new missions and new enemies, including General RAAM.
A series of novels based on the Gears of War series were written by Karen Traviss. The books expand on the games and detail events which occur in between installments.
It focused on the history of the characters and the battle at Aspho Fields, but also took place during the events between Gears of War and Gears of War 2.
Later they enter into a new conflict against the Stranded who have begun a guerilla war against the remnants of the COG.
A flashback story details a young Hoffman during the Siege of Anvil Gate. The arc was 6 issues long and ended in May Two stand-alone comic book series were released.
This was released on June 9, The second stand-alone was " Harper's Story ". In Gears of War 2 there are collectibles which describe the end of Sgt.
Jonathan Harper, a Gears veteran. He was captured by the Locust during the events of the Hollow. He managed to survive the vile deeds of the Locust Horde and escape.
He helped a family reach safety, taking the bullets into his own body before falling to the ground. Issue number 9 begins a new arc, " Barren ", of which the first part was released in September The "other side" of the life of humans faced by total annihilation are shown.
Birthing creches, or breeding farms, filled with women who are there to just to give birth. With humanity dying out and no people to replace fallen Gears, new humans are needed.
The story focuses on an escapee from one of these centers named Alex Brand. Declared to be barren at the age of 18, Brand was kicked from the breeding farm she was born in, sent to Boot Camp and trained to be a Gear.
She accompanies Delta and Sigma Squads as they investigate a mysterious beacon call from the place at which she was born, which was thought to have been destroyed by Locust.
On March 21, , it was announced that New Line Cinema had purchased the rights to make a Gears of War film , with Stuart Beattie writing the script along with Marty Bowen and Wyck Godfrey , who will be producing it.
Stable double helical gears can be directly interchanged with spur gears without any need for different bearings. A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip cut off.
When two bevel gears mesh, their imaginary vertices must occupy the same point. Their shaft axes also intersect at this point, forming an arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts.
The angle between the shafts can be anything except zero or degrees. Bevel gears with equal numbers of teeth and shaft axes at 90 degrees are called miter US or mitre UK gears.
Spiral bevel gears can be manufactured as Gleason types circular arc with non-constant tooth depth , Oerlikon and Curvex types circular arc with constant tooth depth , Klingelnberg Cyclo-Palloid Epicycloid with constant tooth depth or Klingelnberg Palloid.
Spiral bevel gears have the same advantages and disadvantages relative to their straight-cut cousins as helical gears do to spur gears. Note: The cylindrical gear tooth profile corresponds to an involute, but the bevel gear tooth profile to an octoid.
Hünecke, TU Dresden]. Furthermore, the "involute bevel gear sets" cause more noise. Hypoid gears resemble spiral bevel gears except the shaft axes do not intersect.
The pitch surfaces appear conical but, to compensate for the offset shaft, are in fact hyperboloids of revolution. Depending on which side the shaft is offset to, relative to the angling of the teeth, contact between hypoid gear teeth may be even smoother and more gradual than with spiral bevel gear teeth, but also have a sliding action along the meshing teeth as it rotates and therefore usually require some of the most viscous types of gear oil to avoid it being extruded from the mating tooth faces, the oil is normally designated HP for hypoid followed by a number denoting the viscosity.
Also, the pinion can be designed with fewer teeth than a spiral bevel pinion, with the result that gear ratios of and higher are feasible using a single set of hypoid gears.
Whereas a regular nonhypoid ring-and-pinion gear set is suitable for many applications, it is not ideal for vehicle drive trains because it generates more noise and vibration than a hypoid does.
Bringing hypoid gears to market for mass-production applications was an engineering improvement of the s.
Crown gears or contrate gears are a particular form of bevel gear whose teeth project at right angles to the plane of the wheel; in their orientation the teeth resemble the points on a crown.
A crown gear can only mesh accurately with another bevel gear, although crown gears are sometimes seen meshing with spur gears.
A crown gear is also sometimes meshed with an escapement such as found in mechanical clocks. Worms resemble screws.
A worm is meshed with a worm wheel , which looks similar to a spur gear. Worm-and-gear sets are a simple and compact way to achieve a high torque, low speed gear ratio.
For example, helical gears are normally limited to gear ratios of less than while worm-and-gear sets vary from to A worm gear is a species of helical gear, but its helix angle is usually somewhat large close to 90 degrees and its body is usually fairly long in the axial direction.
These attributes give it screw like qualities. The distinction between a worm and a helical gear is that at least one tooth persists for a full rotation around the helix.
If this occurs, it is a 'worm'; if not, it is a 'helical gear'. A worm may have as few as one tooth. If that tooth persists for several turns around the helix, the worm appears, superficially, to have more than one tooth, but what one in fact sees is the same tooth reappearing at intervals along the length of the worm.
The usual screw nomenclature applies: a one-toothed worm is called single thread or single start ; a worm with more than one tooth is called multiple thread or multiple start.
The helix angle of a worm is not usually specified. Instead, the lead angle, which is equal to 90 degrees minus the helix angle, is given.
In a worm-and-gear set, the worm can always drive the gear. However, if the gear attempts to drive the worm, it may or may not succeed. Particularly if the lead angle is small, the gear's teeth may simply lock against the worm's teeth, because the force component circumferential to the worm is not sufficient to overcome friction.
In traditional music boxes, however, the gear drives the worm, which has a large helix angle. This mesh drives the speed-limiter vanes which are mounted on the worm shaft.
Worm-and-gear sets that do lock are called self locking , which can be used to advantage, as when it is desired to set the position of a mechanism by turning the worm and then have the mechanism hold that position.
An example is the machine head found on some types of stringed instruments. If the gear in a worm-and-gear set is an ordinary helical gear only a single point of contact is achieved.
This is done by making both concave and joining them at a saddle point ; this is called a cone-drive  or "Double enveloping".
Worm gears can be right or left-handed, following the long-established practice for screw threads. Non-circular gears are designed for special purposes.
While a regular gear is optimized to transmit torque to another engaged member with minimum noise and wear and maximum efficiency , a non-circular gear's main objective might be ratio variations, axle displacement oscillations and more.
Common applications include textile machines, potentiometers and continuously variable transmissions.
A rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of as a sector gear with an infinitely large radius of curvature. Torque can be converted to linear force by meshing a rack with a pinion: the pinion turns; the rack moves in a straight line.
Such a mechanism is used in automobiles to convert the rotation of the steering wheel into the left-to-right motion of the tie rod s.
Racks also feature in the theory of gear geometry, where, for instance, the tooth shape of an interchangeable set of gears may be specified for the rack, infinite radius , and the tooth shapes for gears of particular actual radii are then derived from that.
The rack and pinion gear type is employed in a rack railway. In epicyclic gearing one or more of the gear axes moves. Examples are sun and planet gearing see below , cycloidal drive , automatic transmissions , and mechanical differentials.
Sun and planet gearing is a method of converting reciprocating motion into rotary motion that was used in steam engines. James Watt used it on his early steam engines to get around the patent on the crank , but it also provided the advantage of increasing the flywheel speed so Watt could use a lighter flywheel.
In the illustration, the sun is yellow, the planet red, the reciprocating arm is blue, the flywheel is green and the driveshaft is gray.
A harmonic gear or strain wave gear is a specialized gearing mechanism often used in industrial motion control , robotics and aerospace for its advantages over traditional gearing systems, including lack of backlash, compactness and high gear ratios.
Though the diagram does not demonstrate the correct configuration, it is a "timing gear," conventionally with far more teeth than a traditional gear to ensure a higher degree of precision.
A cage gear , also called a lantern gear or lantern pinion , has cylindrical rods for teeth, parallel to the axle and arranged in a circle around it, much as the bars on a round bird cage or lantern.
The assembly is held together by disks at each end, into which the tooth rods and axle are set. Cage gears are more efficient than solid pinions, [ citation needed ] and dirt can fall through the rods rather than becoming trapped and increasing wear.
They can be constructed with very simple tools as the teeth are not formed by cutting or milling, but rather by drilling holes and inserting rods.
Sometimes used in clocks, the cage gear should always be driven by a gearwheel, not used as the driver. The cage gear was not initially favoured by conservative clock makers.
It became popular in turret clocks where dirty working conditions were most commonplace. Domestic American clock movements often used them.
All cogs of each gear component of magnetic gears act as a constant magnet with periodic alternation of opposite magnetic poles on mating surfaces.
Gear components are mounted with a backlash capability similar to other mechanical gearings. Although they cannot exert as much force as a traditional gear, such gears work without touching and so are immune to wear, have very low noise and can slip without damage making them very reliable.
The magnetic coupling can transmit force into a hermetically sealed enclosure without using a radial shaft seal , which may leak. Several other helix parameters can be viewed either in the normal or transverse planes.
The subscript n usually indicates the normal. Pitch is the distance between a point on one tooth and the corresponding point on an adjacent tooth.
The use of the single word pitch without qualification may be ambiguous, and for this reason it is preferable to use specific designations such as transverse circular pitch, normal base pitch, axial pitch.
Backlash is the error in motion that occurs when gears change direction. It exists because there is always some gap between the trailing face of the driving tooth and the leading face of the tooth behind it on the driven gear, and that gap must be closed before force can be transferred in the new direction.
The term "backlash" can also be used to refer to the size of the gap, not just the phenomenon it causes; thus, one could speak of a pair of gears as having, for example, "0.
Therefore, gear pairs are designed to have some backlash. It is usually provided by reducing the tooth thickness of each gear by half the desired gap distance.
In the case of a large gear and a small pinion, however, the backlash is usually taken entirely off the gear and the pinion is given full sized teeth.
Backlash can also be provided by moving the gears further apart. The backlash of a gear train equals the sum of the backlash of each pair of gears, so in long trains backlash can become a problem.
For situations that require precision, such as instrumentation and control, backlash can be minimised through one of several techniques.
For instance, the gear can be split along a plane perpendicular to the axis, one half fixed to the shaft in the usual manner, the other half placed alongside it, free to rotate about the shaft, but with springs between the two halves providing relative torque between them, so that one achieves, in effect, a single gear with expanding teeth.
Another method involves tapering the teeth in the axial direction and letting the gear slide in the axial direction to take up slack.
In some machines e. There are several ways of shifting gears, for example:. There are several outcomes of gear shifting in motor vehicles.
In the case of vehicle noise emissions , there are higher sound levels emitted when the vehicle is engaged in lower gears. The design life of the lower ratio gears is shorter, so cheaper gears may be used, which tend to generate more noise due to smaller overlap ratio and a lower mesh stiffness etc.
This fact has been used to analyze vehicle-generated sound since the late s, and has been incorporated into the simulation of urban roadway noise and corresponding design of urban noise barriers along roadways.
A profile is one side of a tooth in a cross section between the outside circle and the root circle. Usually a profile is the curve of intersection of a tooth surface and a plane or surface normal to the pitch surface, such as the transverse, normal, or axial plane.
The fillet curve root fillet is the concave portion of the tooth profile where it joins the bottom of the tooth space. As mentioned near the beginning of the article, the attainment of a nonfluctuating velocity ratio is dependent on the profile of the teeth.
Friction and wear between two gears is also dependent on the tooth profile. There are a great many tooth profiles that provide constant velocity ratios.
In many cases, given an arbitrary tooth shape, it is possible to develop a tooth profile for the mating gear that provides a constant velocity ratio.
However, two constant velocity tooth profiles are the most commonly used in modern times: the cycloid and the involute. The cycloid was more common until the late s.
Since then, the involute has largely superseded it, particularly in drive train applications. The cycloid is in some ways the more interesting and flexible shape; however the involute has two advantages: it is easier to manufacture, and it permits the center-to-center spacing of the gears to vary over some range without ruining the constancy of the velocity ratio.
Cycloidal gears only work properly if the center spacing is exactly right. Cycloidal gears are still used in mechanical clocks. An undercut is a condition in generated gear teeth when any part of the fillet curve lies inside of a line drawn tangent to the working profile at its point of juncture with the fillet.
Undercut may be deliberately introduced to facilitate finishing operations. With undercut the fillet curve intersects the working profile.
Without undercut the fillet curve and the working profile have a common tangent. Numerous nonferrous alloys, cast irons, powder-metallurgy and plastics are used in the manufacture of gears.
However, steels are most commonly used because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and low cost. Plastic is commonly used where cost or weight is a concern.
A properly designed plastic gear can replace steel in many cases because it has many desirable properties, including dirt tolerance, low speed meshing, the ability to "skip" quite well  and the ability to be made with materials that don't need additional lubrication.
Manufacturers have used plastic gears to reduce costs in consumer items including copy machines, optical storage devices, cheap dynamos, consumer audio equipment, servo motors, and printers.
Another advantage of the use of plastics, formerly such as in the s , was the reduction of repair costs for certain expensive machines. In cases of severe jamming as of the paper in a printer , the plastic gear teeth would be torn free of their substrate, allowing the drive mechanism to then spin freely instead of damaging itself by straining against the jam.
This use of "sacrificial" gear teeth avoided destroying the much more expensive motor and related parts.
This method has been superseded, in more recent designs, by the use of clutches and torque- or current-limited motors.
Although gears can be made with any pitch, for convenience and interchangeability standard pitches are frequently used. Pitch is a property associated with linear dimensions and so differs whether the standard values are in the imperial inch or metric systems.
Using inch measurements, standard diametral pitch values with units of "per inch" are chosen; the diametral pitch is the number of teeth on a gear of one inch pitch diameter.
Common standard values for spur gears are 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 24, 32, 48, 64, 72, 80, 96, , , and When gear dimensions are in the metric system the pitch specification is generally in terms of module or modulus , which is effectively a length measurement across the pitch diameter.
The term module is understood to mean the pitch diameter in millimeters divided by the number of teeth. When the module is based upon inch measurements, it is known as the English module to avoid confusion with the metric module.
Module is a direct dimension, unlike diametral pitch, which is an inverse dimension "threads per inch". Molded gearing is usually either powder metallurgy or plastic.
The most common form of gear cutting is hobbing , but gear shaping , milling , and broaching also exist. For metal gears in the transmissions of cars and trucks, the teeth are heat treated to make them hard and more wear resistant while leaving the core soft and tough.
For large gears that are prone to warp, a quench press is used. Modern physics adopted the gear model in different ways. In the nineteenth century, James Clerk Maxwell developed a model of electromagnetism in which magnetic field lines were rotating tubes of incompressible fluid.
Maxwell used a gear wheel and called it an "idle wheel" to explain the electric current as a rotation of particles in opposite directions to that of the rotating field lines.
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